Complete genome sequence of Jiangella gansuensis strain YIM 002T (DSM 44835T), the type species of the genus Jiangella and source of new antibiotic compounds
- Jian-Yu Jiao1,
- Lorena Carro2,
- Lan Liu1,
- Xiao-Yang Gao3,
- Xiao-Tong Zhang1,
- Wael N. Hozzein4, 12,
- Alla Lapidus5, 6,
- Marcel Huntemann7,
- T. B. K. Reddy7,
- Neha Varghese7,
- Michalis Hadjithomas7,
- Natalia N. Ivanova7,
- Markus Göker8,
- Manoj Pillay9,
- Jonathan A. Eisen10,
- Tanja Woyke7,
- Hans-Peter Klenk2, 8Email author,
- Nikos C. Kyrpides7, 11 and
- Wen-Jun Li1, 13Email author
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 15 November 2016
Accepted: 4 January 2017
Published: 3 February 2017
Jiangella gansuensis strain YIM 002T is the type strain of the type species of the genus Jiangella, which is at the present time composed of five species, and was isolated from desert soil sample in Gansu Province (China). The five strains of this genus are clustered in a monophyletic group when closer actinobacterial genera are used to infer a 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny. The study of this genome is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project, and here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this taxon. The genome of J. gansuensis strain YIM 002T contains a single scaffold of size 5,585,780 bp, which involves 149 pseudogenes, 4905 protein-coding genes and 50 RNA genes, including 2520 hypothetical proteins and 4 rRNA genes. From the investigation of genome sizes of Jiangella species, J. gansuensis shows a smaller size, which indicates this strain might have discarded too much genetic information to adapt to desert environment. Seven new compounds from this bacterium have recently been described; however, its potential should be higher, as secondary metabolite gene cluster analysis predicted 60 gene clusters, including the potential to produce the pristinamycin.
KeywordsJiangella gansuensis Jiangellales Desert Genome Taxonomic comments GEBA
Jiangella gansuensis strain YIM 002 T (=DSM 44835 T =CCTCC AA 204001 T =KCTC 19044 T) is the type strain of J. gansuensis . This organism is an aerobic, Gram-positive, haloduric filamentous actinomycete, placed within the genus Jiangella .
The genus Jiangella was first identified by Song et al. in 2005, including five halotolerant species listed at present by LPSN . Members of this taxon isolated from different habitats, respectively, are rarely described except for their polyphasic approach based on combination of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics [1, 3–6]. The Jiangella was originally identified as a new genus of the family Nocardioidaceae within the suborder Propionibacterineae  based on phenotypic and genotypic criteria. However, the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships of Actinobacteria at higher taxa was done later based on using the 16S rRNA genes and other related evidences, such as taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides [7, 8]. After the genus Haloactinopolyspora was described by Tang et al., the genus Jiangella together with the genus Haloactinopolyspora were placed in a novel family Jiangellaceae belong to Jiangellineae subord. nov., mainly because of theirs signature nucleotide patterns, 16S rRNA gene similarity and phylogenetic criteria . Presently, the J. gansuensis is placed in the family Jiangellaceae of the order Jiangellales within the class Actinobacteria .
The capacity of J. gansuensis YIM 002 T to produce seven new compounds (five pyrrol-2-aldehyde compounds, jiangrines A-E; one indolizine derivative, jiangrine F; one glycolipid, jiangolide) has previously been shown , highlighting the importance of this bacterium and its analysis as a novel source of secondary metabolites. As part of the GEBA project and considering its phylogenetic position and biological significance, we finally decided to sequence the genome of the type strain of J. gansuensis . Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for J. gansuensis YIM 002 T, together with the description of genomic sequencing and annotation. At the same time, we will provide a brief introduction of its genome in this article.
Classification and features
The draft genome of J. gansuensis YIM 002 T has one almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence, which correspond perfectly with the original sequence from the species description (AY631071). The comparison of this 16S rRNA sequence of YIM 002 T using the EzTaxon-e server , showed highest similarity to Jiangella alba YIM 61503 T (98.93%), with close relationships to other species within the genus, Jiangella muralis 15-Je-017T (98.88%), Jiangella mangrovi 3SM4-07T (98.49%) and Jiangella alkaliphila D8-87T (98.10%). Closest other genera are Haloactinopolyspora  and Phytoactinopolyspora . The strains of the genus Jiangella have many 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides compared with most of other described actinomycetes. This allows for distinguished them easily from other actinobacteria, especially in 11 unique positions, including 127:234 (G-C), 598:640 (C-G), 672:734 (G–C), 831:855 (U–A), 833:853 (G–C), 840:846 (A–U), 950:1231 (G–C), 952:1229 (G–C), 955:1225 (G–U), 986:1219 (U–G) and 987:1218 (C–G) .
Species Jiangella gansuensis
Type strain YIM 002T (=DSM 44835T)
pH range; Optimum
Gansu Province, China
Sample collection time
2005 or before
Genome sequencing information
Genome project history
Genome sequencing project information
Illumina Std shotgun library
454-GS-FLX-Titanium Illumina GAii
ALLPATHS v. R37654
Gene calling method
Prodigal 1.4, GenePRIMP
GenBank Date of Release
Source Material Identifier
YIM 002, DSM 44835
Tree of Life, GEBA
Growth conditions and genomic DNA preparation
J. gansuensis strain YIM 002 T (=DSM 44835 T) was grown in DSMZ medium 65 (GYM Streptomyces medium) at 28 °C. Genomic DNA was isolated using Qiagen Genomic 500 DNA Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following the standard protocol provided by the manufacturer. Some modifications were included for cell lysis, first freezing for 20 min (−70 °C), then heating 5 min (98 °C), and cooling 15 min to 37 °C; adding 1.5 ml lysozyme (standard: 0.3 ml, only), 1.0 ml achromopeptidase, 0.12 ml lysostaphine, 0.12 ml mutanolysine, 1.5 ml proteinase K (standard: 0.5 ml, only), followed by overnight incubation at 35 °C.
Genome sequencing and assembly
% of total a
Genome size (bp)
DNA coding (bp)
DNA G + C (bp)
Genes in internal clusters
Genes with function prediction
Genes assigned to COGs
Genes with Pfam domains
Genes with signal peptides
Genes with trandmembrane helices
Number of genes associated with the general COG functional categories
% age a
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
RNA processing and modification
Replication, recombination and repair
Chromatin structure and dynamics
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Signal transduction mechanisms
Cell wall/membrane biogenesis
Intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Energy production and conversion
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Lipid transport and metabolism
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
General function prediction only
Not in COGs
Insights from the genome sequence
The genome of YIM 002 T with a high G + C content and the smallest size within the Jiangella genomes (Table 3) may be the result of selection and mutation , which could involve several factors, such as environment, aerobiosis and others . Generally speaking, a larger genome size may correlate with more complex habitat, suggesting that the genome encodes a large metabolic and stress-tolerance potential . However, after we investigated the genome size of other type strains of Jiangella species, we found the size of the other three strains sequenced of this genus, J. alkaliphila , J. alba and J. muralis greater than 7 Mbp based on the genome data from NCBI. This result could implicate that the tight packing and small size of J. gansuensis is likely an adaptation for reproductive efficiency or competitiveness . As a halotolerant actinobacterium, solute and ion transporter were predicted in its genome. At the same time, the genome shows properties related to solution of nitrate and sulfonate transport systems. Moreover, nitrite reductase and nitrogen fixation protein NifU were also detected.
The capacity of this microorganism to produce antibiotics has been recently proved with the description of seven new compounds (five pyrrol-2-aldehyde compounds, jiangrines A-E; one indolizine derivative, jiangrine F; one glycolipid, jiangolide) . However, its potential should be higher, taken account the 45 biosynthetic clusters found within the JGI tool  and the 497 genes implicated in these clusters. As most of the clusters appear to be putative genes in this analysis, a second approach was carried out to detect the variety of biosynthetic types and enhance manual genome annotations of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The software pipeline antiSMASH for secondary metabolite gene cluster identification, annotation and analysis was used [37, 38]. From this analysis, 60 gene clusters were identified, including 20 gene clusters in which the most similar clusters were still unknown (Additional file 2: Table S1). The result of the analysis shown the potential of J. gansuensis to produce pristinamycin, an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis effective against staphylococcal infections, and other antibiotics.
The genome sequence and annotation of J. gansuensis YIM 002 T were presented. This draft genome possess a smaller size (5.59 Mb) compared with other Jiangella species, and contents 2504 function predicted proteins, indicating that J. gansuensis possibly discarded many genes to adapt to the extreme desert conditions during its evolution. Although the processes of nitrous metabolism and secondary metabolism need further investigation to fully understand the related pathways, we believe that J. gansuensis participates in nitrogen cycling and has an important ability to produce secondary metabolites. This genome will contribute to further studies on phylogenetics and the mechanisms of environmental adaptation. A combined study together with genomes of other members in the family Jiangellaceae will help us to better understand the ecological role of this taxon and its relationships to other actinobacteria.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
Genomic encyclopedia of bacteria and archaea
Integrated microbial genomes – expert review
Joint Genome Institute
List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature
We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Marlen Jando for growing J. gansuensis cultures, and Evelyne-Marie Brambilla for DNA extraction and quality control (both at DSMZ). This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. AL was also supported by St. Petersburg State University grant (No 184.108.40.2065). WJL and WNH would like to extend their appreciation to Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through the research group No. PRG-1436-27 and Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31670009). WJL was also supported by ‘Hundred Talents Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guangdong Province Higher Vocational Colleges & Schools Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (2014).
JYJ, NCK, WJL, MG and HPK designed research and project outline. MG selected and prepared the samples. JYJ, LC, LL and XYG performed comparative genomics and 16S rRNA genes analyses. JYJ, LC, XTZ and AL analysed bioclusters and secondary metabolites. WNH, JYJ and WJL provided the background information on the current taxonomy in relationship to monophyletic groups. JYJ, LC, XYG, WJL and HPK drafted the manuscript. MH, TBKR, NV, MP, MH, NNI, JAE and TW performed genome sequencing, assembly and annotation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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