Open Access

Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Peptoniphilus obesi sp. nov.

  • Ajay Kumar Mishra1,
  • Perrine Hugon1,
  • Jean-Christophe Lagier1,
  • Thi-Thien Nguyen1,
  • Catherine Robert1,
  • Carine Couderc1,
  • Didier Raoult1 and
  • Pierre-Edouard Fournier1Email author
Standards in Genomic Sciences20137:7030357

https://doi.org/10.4056/sigs.32766871

Published: 25 February 2013

Abstract

Peptoniphilus obesi strain ph1T sp. nov., is the type strain of P. obesi sp. nov., a new species within the genus Peptoniphilus. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a 26-year-old woman suffering from morbid obesity. P. obesi strain ph1T is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,774,150 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) contains 1,689 protein-coding and 29 RNA genes, including 5 rRNA genes.

Keywords

Peptoniphilus obesi genome

Introduction

Peptoniphilus obesi strain ph1T (=CSUR=P187, =DSM =25489) is the type strain of P. obesi sp. nov. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, indole-negative coccus that was isolated from the stool of a 26-year-old woman suffering from morbid obesity and is part of a study aiming at cultivating all species within human feces, individually [1].

Widespread use of gene sequencing, notably 16SrRNA, for the identification of bacteria recovered from clinical specimens, has enabled the description of a great number of bacterial species and genera of clinical importance [2,3]. The recent development of high throughput genome sequencing and mass spectrometric analyses has provided unprecedented access to a wealth of genetic and proteomic information [4].

The current classification of prokaryotes, known as polyphasic taxonomy, relies on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics [5]. However, as more than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced [6] and the cost of genomic sequencing is decreasing, we recently proposed to integrate genomic information in addition to their main phenotypic characteristics (habitat, Gram-stain reaction, culture and metabolic characteristics, and when applicable, pathogenicity) in the description of new bacterial species [718].

The commensal microbiota of humans and animals consists, in part, of many Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. These bacteria are also commonly associated with a variety of human infections [19]. Extensive taxonomic changes have occurred among this group of bacteria, especially in clinically-important genera such as Finegoldia, Parvimonas, and Peptostreptococcus [20]. Members of genus Peptostreptococcus were divided into three new genera, Peptoniphilus, Anaerococcus and Gallicola by Ezaki [20]. The genus Peptoniphilus currently contains eight species that produce butyrate, are non-saccharolytic and use peptone and amino acids as major energy sources: P. asaccharolyticus, P. harei, P. indolicus, P. ivorii, P. lacrimalis [20], P. gorbachii, P. olsenii, and P. methioninivorax [21,22].

Members of the genus Peptoniphilus have been isolated mainly from various human clinical specimens such as vaginal discharges, ovarian, peritoneal, sacral and lachrymal gland abscesses [23]. In addition, P. indolicus causes summer mastitis in cattle [23].

Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for P. obesi sp. nov. strain ph1T (CSUR=P187, DSM=25489) together with the description of the complete genomic sequence and its annotation. These characteristics support the circumscription of the species P. obesi.

Classification and features

A stool sample was collected from a 26-year-old woman living in Marseille (France), who suffered from morbid obesity: BMI = 48.2 (118.8 kg, 1.57 meter). At the time of stool sample collection, she was not a drug-user and was not on a diet. The patient gave an informed and signed consent, and the agreement of local ethics committee of the IFR48 (Marseille, France) were obtained under agreement 09-022. The fecal specimen was preserved at −80°C after collection. Strain ph1T (Table 1) was isolated in 2011 by anaerobic cultivation on 5% sheep blood-enriched Columbia agar (BioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France) after 26 days of preincubation of the stool sample in an anaerobic blood culture bottle enriched with sterile blood and rumen fluid.
Table 1.

Classification and general features of Peptoniphilus obesi strain ph1T according to the MIGS recommendations [24]

MIGS ID

Property

Term

Evidence codea

 

Current classification

Domain Bacteria

TAS [25]

  

Phylum Firmicutes

TAS [2628]

  

Class Clostridia

TAS [29,30]

  

Order Clostridiales

TAS [31,32]

  

Family Clostridiales family XI Incertae sedis

TAS [33]

  

Genus Peptoniphilus

TAS [20]

  

Species Peptoniphilus obesi

IDA

  

Type strain ph1T

IDA

 

Gram stain

positive

IDA

 

Cell shape

coccus

IDA

 

Motility

nonmotile

IDA

 

Sporulation

nonsporulating

IDA

 

Temperature range

mesophilic

IDA

 

Optimum temperature

37°C

IDA

MIGS-6.3

Salinity

unknown

IDA

MIGS-22

Oxygen requirement

anaerobic

IDA

 

Carbon source

unknown

 
 

Energy source

peptones

NAS

MIGS-6

Habitat

human gut

IDA

MIGS-15

Biotic relationship

free living

IDA

 

Pathogenicity

unknown

 
 

Biosafety level

2

 

MIGS-14

Isolation

human feces

 

MIGS-4

Geographic location

France

IDA

MIGS-5

Sample collection time

January 2011

IDA

MIGS-4.1

Latitude

43.296482

IDA

MIGS-4.1

Longitude

5.36978

IDA

MIGS-4.3

Depth

surface

IDA

MIGS-4.4

Altitude

0 m above sea level

IDA

Evidence codes - IDA: Inferred from Direct Assay; TAS: Traceable Author Statement (i.e., a direct report exists in the literature); NAS: Non-traceable Author Statement (i.e., not directly observed for the living, isolated sample, but based on a generally accepted property for the species, or anecdotal evidence). These evidence codes are from the Gene Ontology project [20]. If the evidence is IDA, then the property was directly observed for a live isolate by one of the authors or an expert mentioned in the acknowledgements.

This strain exhibited a 91.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with P. asaccharolyticus and P. indolicus, the phylogenetically closest validated Peptoniphilus species (Figure 1). Among the validly published Peptoniphilus species, the percentage of 16S rRNA sequence similarity ranges from 86.0% (P. ivoriivs. P. olsenii) to 98.5% (P. asaccharolyticus vs. P. indolicus). Despite the fact that strain ph1 exhibited a 16SrRNA sequence similarity lower than the 95.0% cutoff, which is usually regarded as a threshold for the creation of new genus [2], we considered it as a new species within the Peptoniphilus genus.
Figure 1.

Phylogenetic tree highlighting the position of Peptoniphilus obesi strain ph1T relative to a selection of type strains of validly published species of Peptoniphilus. GenBank accession numbers are indicated in parentheses. Sequences were aligned using CLUSTALW, and phylogenetic inferences obtained using the maximum-likelihood method within the MEGA software. Numbers at the nodes are percentages of bootstrap values obtained by repeating the analysis 500 times to generate a majority consensus tree. Peptoniphilus timonensis sp. nov., a new species that we recently proposed, was also included in the analysis [12]. Anaerococcus prevotii was used as outgroup. The scale bar represents a 2% nucleotide sequence divergence.

Different growth temperatures (25, 30, 37, 45°C) were tested. Growth was observed between 30°C and 45°C, with optimal growth at 37°C. Colonies stained gray, transparent, opaque, non-bright and were 0.4 mm in diameter on blood-enriched Columbia agar. Growth of the strain was tested under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions using GENbag anaer and GENbag microaer systems, respectively (BioMérieux), and in the presence of air, with or without 5% CO2. Optimal growth was achieved anaerobically, but no growth occurred in microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. A motility test was negative. Cells grown on agar are Gram-positive (Figure 2) and diameter ranged from 0.77µm to 0.93 µm with a mean diameter of 0.87 µm by electron microscopy (Figure 3).
Figure 2.

Gram staining of P. obesi strain ph1T

Figure 3.

Transmission electron microscopy of P. obesi strain ph1T, using a Morgani 268D (Philips) at an operating voltage of 60kV. The scale bar represents 200 nm.

Strain ph1T exhibited neither catalase nor oxidase activities. Using the API rapid ID 32A system (BioMérieux), positive reactions were observed for arginine arylamidase and leucine arylamidase. Negative reactions were found for urease, nitrate reduction, arginine dihydrolase, indole production, α-arabinosidase, α-glucosidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, 6-phospho-β-galactosidase β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, D-mannose, D-raffinose, alkaline phosphatase, alanine arylamidase, glutamyl glutamic acid arylamidase, glycine arylamidase, histidine arylamidase, leucyl glycine arylamidase, phenylalanine arylamidase, proline arylamidase, pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, serine arylamidase and tyrosine arylamidase. P. obesi is susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, doxycyclin, rifampicine, vancomycin, gentamicin 500, metronidazole and resistant to ceftriaxon, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin 10 and trimetoprim + sulfamethoxazole.

When compared with Peptoniphilus grossensis strain ph5T, P. obesi sp. nov strain ph1T exhibited phenotypic differences as no endospore formation, no indole, no tyrosine arylamidase, no histidine arylamidase production and this strain did not fermented D-mannose. P. obesi sp. nov strain ph1T differed from Peptoniphilus timonensis strain JC401T by endospore formation, catalase, indole, α-galactosidase, leucine arylamidase, tyrosine arylamidase, histidine arylamidase and serine arylamidase production. P. obesi sp. nov strain ph1T differed from Peptoniphilus gorbachii strain WAL 10418 T by glutamyl glutamic acid, phenylalanine arylamidase, tyrosine arylamidase and glycine arylamidase production (Table 2).
Table 2.

Differential characteristics of P. obesi sp. nov strain ph1T, Peptoniphilus grossensis strain ph5 T, Peptoniphilus timonensis strain JC401T and Peptoniphilus gorbachii WAL 10418T.

Properties

P. obesi

P. grossensis

P. timonensis

P. gorbachii

Cell diameter (µm)

0.87

1.2

0.91

≤0.7

Oxygen requirement

anaerobic

anaerobic

anaerobic

anaerobic

Gram stain

+

+

+

+

Salt requirement

Motility

na

Endospore formation

+

+

na

Production of

    

Phosphatase

Catalase

+

Oxidase

Nitrate reductase

Urease

α-galactosidase

+

Indole

+

+

var

Arginine arylamidase

+

+

+

+

Glutamyl glutamic acid arylamidase

+

Phenylalanine arylamidase

+/w

Leucine arylamidase

+

+

+

Tyrosine arylamidase

+

+

+

Alanine arylamidase

Glycine arylamidase

+

Histidine arylamidase

+

+

Serine arylamidase

+

Utilization of

    

D-mannose

+

Habitat

human gut

human gut

human gut

human

var: variable

w: weak

na: data not available

Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS protein analysis was carried out as previously described [34]. Briefly, a pipette tip was used to pick one isolated bacterial colony from a culture agar plate, and to spread it as a thin film on a MTP 384 MALDI-TOF target plate (Bruker Daltonics, Leipzig, Germany). Twelve distinct deposits were made for strain ph1T from twelve isolated colonies. Each smear was overlaid with 2 µL of matrix solution (saturated solution of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) in 50% acetonitrile, 2.5% tri-fluoracetic-acid, and allowed to dry for five minutes. Measurements were performed with a Microflex spectrometer (Bruker). Spectra were recorded in the positive linear mode for the mass range of 2,000 to 20,000 Da (parameter settings: ion source 1 (IS1), 20 kV; IS2, 18.5 kV; lens, 7 kV). A spectrum was obtained after 675 shots at a variable laser power. The time of acquisition was between 30 seconds and 1 minute per spot. The twelve ph1T spectra were imported into the MALDI BioTyper software (version 2.0, Bruker) and analyzed by standard pattern matching (with default parameter settings) against the main spectra of 3,769 bacteria including spectra from 8 of the 11 validly published species of Peptoniphilus, that are part of the reference data contained in the BioTyper database. The method of identification included the m/z from 2,000 to 20,000 Da For every spectrum, 100 peaks at most were taken into account and compared with spectra in the database. A score enabled the identification, or not, from the tested species: a score > 2 with a validly published species enabled the identification at the species level, a score > 1.7 but < 2 enabled the identification at the genus level; and a score < 1.7 did not enable any identification. For strain ph1T, the maximal obtained score was 1.25, thus suggesting that our isolate was not a member of a known species. We added the spectrum from strain ph1T to our database for future reference (Figure 4). Finally, the gel view allows us to highlight the spectra differences with other of Peptoniphilus genera members (Figure 5).
Figure 4.

Reference mass spectrum from P. obesi strain ph1T. Spectra from 12 individual colonies were compared and a reference spectrum was generated.

Figure 5.

Gel view comparing Peptoniphilus obesi ph1T spectra with other members into Peptoniphilus genera (Peptoniphilus timonensis, Peptoniphilus senegalensis, Peptoniphilus grossensis, Peptoniphilus ivorii, Peptoniphilus indolicus, Peptoniphilus harei, Peptoniphilus gorbachii and Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus). The Gel View displays the raw spectra of all loaded spectrum files arranged in a pseudo-gel like look. The x-axis records the m/z value. The left y-axis displays the running spectrum number originating from subsequent spectra loading. The peak intensity is expressed by a Gray scale scheme code. The color bar and the right y-axis indicate the relation between the color a peak is displayed with and the peak intensity in arbitrary units.

Genome sequencing and annotation

Genome project history

The organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position and 16S rRNA similarity to other members of the genus Peptoniphilus, and is part of a study of the human digestive flora aiming at isolating all bacterial species within human feces. It was the seventh genome of a Peptoniphilus species and the first genome of P. obesi sp. nov. A summary of the project information is shown in Table 3. The Genbank accession number is CAHB00000000 and consists of 32 contigs arranged in 5 scaffolds. Table 3 shows the project information and its association with MIGS version 2.0 compliance.
Table 3.

Project information

MIGS ID

Property

Term

MIGS-31

Finishing quality

High-quality draft

MIGS-28

Libraries used

454 GS paired-end 3-kb library

MIGS-29

Sequencing platform

454 GS FLX Titanium

MIGS-31.2

Sequencing coverage

32×

MIGS-30

Assemblers

Newbler version 2.5.3

MIGS-32

Gene calling method

PRODIGAL

 

INSDC ID

PRJEA82275

 

Genbank Date of Release

May 30, 2012

 

NCBI project ID

CAHB00000000

MIGS-13

Project relevance

Study of the human gut microbiome

Growth conditions and DNA isolation

P. obesi sp. nov. strain ph1T(CSUR=P187, =DSM=25489), was grown anaerobically on 5% sheep blood-enriched BHI agar at 37°C. Four petri dishes were spread and resuspended in 3x500 µl of TE buffer and stored at 80°C. Then, 500 µl of this suspension were thawed, centrifuged for 3 minutes at 10,000 rpm and resuspended in 3×100µL of G2 buffer (EZ1 DNA Tissue kit, Qiagen). A first mechanical lysis was performed by glass powder on the Fastprep-24 device (Sample Preparation system, MP Biomedicals, USA) using 2×20 seconds cycles. DNA was then treated with 2.5 µg/µL lysozyme (30 minutes at 37°C) and extracted using the BioRobot EZ1 Advanced XL (Qiagen). The DNA was then concentrated and purified using the Qiamp kit (Qiagen). The yield and the concentration was measured by the Quant-it Picogreen kit (Invitrogen) on the Genios Tecan fluorometer at 37.2 ng/µl.

Genome sequencing and assembly

DNA (5 µg) was mechanically fragmented on a Hydroshear device (Digilab, Holliston, MA, USA) with an enrichment size of 3–4kb. DNA fragmentation was visualized through an Agilent 2100 BioAnalyzer on a DNA labchip 7500 with an optimal size of 3.287kb. The library was constructed according to the 454 GS FLX Titanium paired-end protocol. Circularization and nebulization were performed and generated a pattern with an optimum at 665 bp. After PCR amplification through 15 cycles followed by double size selection, the single stranded paired end library was then quantified on the Quant-it Ribogreen kit (Invitrogen) on the Genios Tecan fluorometer at 72 pg/µL. The library concentration equivalence was calculated as 1.99E+08 molecules/µL. The library was stored at −20°C until further use.

The shotgun library was clonally amplified with 0.5 cpb and 1 cpb in 2 SV-emPCR reactions per condition, with the GS Titanium SV emPCR Kit (Lib-L) v2 (Roche). The yield of the emPCR was 9.2% for 0.5 cpb and 12% for 1 cpb in the range of 5 to 20% from the Roche procedure. Approximately 790,000 beads were loaded on 1/4 region of a GS Titanium PicoTiterPlate PTP Kit 70×75 and sequenced with the GS FLX Titanium Sequencing Kit XLR70 (Roche). The run was performed overnight and then analyzed on the cluster through the gsRunBrowser and Newbler assembler (Roche). A total of 228,882 passed filter wells were obtained and generated 76.8Mb of DNA sequence with a average length of 336 bp. The global passed filter sequences were assembled using Newbler with 90% identity and 40 bp as overlap. The final assembly identified 5 scaffolds and 32 large contigs (>1,500 bp) generating a genome size of 1.7 Mb.

Genome annotation

Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were predicted using Prodigal [35] with default parameters but the predicted ORFs were excluded if they spanned a sequencing gap region. The predicted bacterial protein sequences were searched against the GenBank database [36] and the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases using BLASTP. The tRNAScanSE tool [37] was used to find tRNA genes, whereas ribosomal RNAs were found by using RNAmmer [38] and BLASTN against the GenBank database. Signal peptides and numbers of transmembrane helices were predicted using SignalP [39] and TMHMM [40], respectively. ORFans were identified if their BLASTP E-value was lower than 1e-03 for alignment length greater than 80 amino acids. If alignment lengths were smaller than 80 amino acids, we used an E-value of 1e-05. To estimate the mean level of nucleotide sequence similarity at the genome level between Peptoniphilus obesi and other members of the Peptoniphilus genera, we compared genomes two by two and determined the mean percentage of nucleotide sequence identity among orthologous ORFs using BLASTn Orthologous genes were detected using the Proteinortho software [41].

Genome properties

The genome is 1,774,150 bp long (1 chromosome, but no plasmid) with a 30.10% G+C content (Table 4 and Figure 6). Of the 1,718 predicted genes, 1,689 were protein-coding genes and 29 were RNAs. A total of 1,278 genes (74.39%) were assigned a putative function. ORFans represented 4.9% (84 genes) of the predicted genes. The remaining genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins. The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 5 and Figure 6. The properties and the statistics of the genome are summarized in Tables 4 and 5.
Figure 6.

Graphical circular map of the chromosome. From the outside in, the outer two circles show open reading frames oriented in the forward (colored by COG categories) and reverse (colored by COG categories) directions, respectively. The third circle marks the rRNA gene operon (red) and tRNA genes (green). The fourth circle shows the G+C% content plot. The inner-most circle shows GC skew, purple indicating negative values whereas olive for positive values.

Table 4.

Nucleotide content and gene count levels of the genome

Attribute

value

% of totala

Genome size (bp)

1,774,150

 

DNA coding region (bp)

1,606,668

90.56

G+C content (bp)

534,019

30.1

Number of replicons

1

 

Extrachromosomal elements

0

 

Total genes

1,718

100

RNA genes

29

1.69

rRNA operons

1

 

Protein-coding genes

1,689

98.31

Genes with function prediction

1,249

72.70

Genes assigned to COGs

1,278

74.39

Genes with peptide signals

87

5.06

Genes with transmembrane helices

414

24.10

a The total is based on either the size of the genome in base pairs or the total number of protein coding genes in the annotated genome

Table 5.

Number of genes associated with the 25 general COG functional categories

Code

value

% age a

Description

J

142

8.41

Translation

A

0

0

RNA processing and modification

K

93

5.51

Transcription

L

109

6.45

Replication, recombination and repair

B

1

0.06

Chromatin structure and dynamics

D

16

0.95

Cell cycle control, mitosis and meiosis

Y

0

0

Nuclear structure

V

64

3.79

Defense mechanisms

T

43

2.55

Signal transduction mechanisms

M

48

2.84

Cell wall/membrane biogenesis

N

4

0.24

Cell motility

Z

0

0

Cytoskeleton

W

0

0

Extracellular structures

U

25

1.48

Intracellular trafficking and secretion

O

52

3.08

Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones

C

76

4.50

Energy production and conversion

G

39

2.31

Carbohydrate transport and metabolism

E

116

6.87

Amino acid transport and metabolism

F

50

2.96

Nucleotide transport and metabolism

H

46

2.72

Coenzyme transport and metabolism

I

45

2.66

Lipid transport and metabolism

P

75

4.44

Inorganic ion transport and metabolism

Q

25

1.48

Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism

R

180

10.66

General function prediction only

S

129

7.64

Function unknown

-

311

18.41

Not in COGs

a The total is based on the total number of protein coding genes in the annotated genome

Comparison with the genomes from other Peptoniphilus species

Here, we compared the genome sequence of P. obesi strain ph1T with those of P. harei strain ACS-146-V-Sch2b, P. lacrimalis strain 315-B, Peptoniphilus senegalensis JC140T, Peptoniphilus timonensis JC401T, Peptoniphilus grossensis ph5 T and Peptoniphilus indolicus strain ATCC BAA-1640.

The draft genome sequence of P. obesi strain ph1T has a larger size than that of P. lacrimalis (1.69Mb) and P. timonensis (1.76Mb), but a smaller size than that of P. harei (1.83Mb), P. grossensis (2.10Mb), P. senegalensis (1.84Mb) and P. indolicus (2.20Mb). The G+C content of P. obesi is comparable to that of P. lacrimalis and P. timonensis (30.10%, 29.91% and 30.70% respectively) but less than that of P. harei (34.44%), P. grossensis (33.90%), P. senegalensis (32.20%) and P. indolicus (32.29%) P. obesi has more predicted ORFs than P. lacrimalis, (1,718 vs 1,586) but fewer than P. harei, P. senegalensis, P. timonensis, P. grossensis and P. indolicus (1,725, 1744, 1922, 2041 and 2262, respectively). In addition, P. obesi shared 931, 957, 967, 1019, 1055, 1077 orthologous genes with P. indolicus, P. timonensis, P. lacrimalis, P. senegalensis, P. harei and P. grossensis, respectively. The average nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 69,14% to 87,28% among Peptoniphilus species, and from 71,04 to 71.80% between P. obesi and other species, thus confirming its new species status. Table 6 summarizes the numbers of orthologous genes and the average percentage of nucleotide sequence identity between the different genomes studied.
Table 6.

Number of orthologous genes (upper right) and average nucleotide identity levels (lower left) between pairs of genomes determined using the Proteinortho software [41].

 

P. grossensis

P. harei

P. indolicus

P. lacrimalis

P. obesi

P. senegalensis

P. timonensis

P. grossensis

X

1,357

1,086

1,106

1,077

1,335

1,237

P. harei

82.20

X

1,078

1,095

1,055

1,297

1,195

P. indolicus

69.26

69.14

X

942

931

1061

977

P. lacrimalis

72.47

72

70

X

967

1,045

976

P. obesi

71.65

71.48

71.18

71.80

X

1,019

957

P. senegalensis

87.28

81.80

69.93

72.28

71.39

X

1,176

P. timonensis

82.27

83.78

70.01

72.79

71.04

82.34

X

Conclusion

On the basis of phenotypic (Table 2), phylogenetic and genomic analyses (Table 6), we formally propose the creation of Peptoniphilus obesi sp. nov. that contains the strain ph1T. This strain has been found in Marseille, France.

Description of Peptoniphilus obesi sp. nov.

Peptoniphilus obesi (o.be.si. L. masc. gen. adj. obesi of an obese, the disease presented by the patient from whom the type strain ph1T was isolated).

Colonies are 0.4 mm in diameter on blood-enriched Columbia agar and stain gray, transparent, opaque, colonies are not bright. Cells are coccoid, diameter range from 0.77µm to 0.93 µm with a mean diameter of 0.87 µm. Optimal growth is achieved anaerobically. No growth is observed in aerobic conditions. Growth occurs between 30–45°C, with optimal growth observed at 37°C, on blood-enriched Columbia agar. Cells stain Gram-positive, are non endospore-forming, and non-motile. Arginine arylamidase and leucine arylamidase activities are present. Cells are negative for the following activities: catalase, oxidase, urease, nitrate reduction, arginine dihydrolase, indole production, α-arabinosidase, α-glucosidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, 6-phospho-β-galactosidase β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, D-mannose, D-raffinose, alkaline phosphatase, alanine arylamidase, glutamyl glutamic acid arylamidase, glycine arylamidase, histidine arylamidase, leucyl glycine arylamidase, phenylalanine arylamidase, proline arylamidase, pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, serine arylamidase and tyrosine arylamidase. Cells are susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, doxycycline, rifampicine, vancomycin, gentamicin 500, metronidazole and resistant to ceftriaxone, gentamicin 10, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole.

The G+C content of the genome is 30.1%. The 16S rRNA and genome sequences are deposited in GenBank under accession numbers CAHB00000000 and JN837495, respectively. The type strain ph1T (= CSUR P187 = DSM 25489) was isolated from the fecal flora of an obese French patient.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Aix-Marseille Université

References

  1. Lagier JC, Armougom F, Million M, Hugon P, Pagnier I, Robert C, Bittar F, Fournous G, Gimenez G, Maraninchi M, et al. Microbial culturomics: paradigm shift in the human gut microbiome study. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18:1185–1193. PubMedView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Clarridge JE. Impact of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of bacteria on clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17:840–862. PubMed 0.1128/CMR.17.4.840-862.2004PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Stackebrandt E, Ebers J. Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 2006; 33:152–155.Google Scholar
  4. Welker M, Moore ER. Applications of whole-cell matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in systematic microbiology. Syst Appl Microbiol 2011; 34:2–11. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2010.11.013View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Genome Online Database. http://www.genomesonline.org/cgi->bin/GOLD/index.cgi
  6. Tindall BJ, Rosselló-Móra R, Busse HJ, Ludwig W, Kämpfer P. Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:249–266. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.016949-0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kokcha S, Mishra AK, Lagier JC, Million M, Leroy Q, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus timonensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 6:346–355.http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.2776064PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lagier JC, El Karkouri K, Nguyen TT, Armougom F, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Anaerococcus senegalensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 6:116–125. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.2415480PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Mishra AK, Gimenez G, Lagier JC, Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Alistipes senegalensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 6:304–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.2625821View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Lagier JC, Armougom F, Mishra AK, Ngyuen TT, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Alistipes timonensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 6:315–324.http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.2685917PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Mishra AK, Lagier JC, Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Clostridium senegalense sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 6:386–395.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mishra AK, Lagier JC, Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Peptoniphilus timonensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.2956294PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mishra AK, Lagier JC, Rivet R, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Paenibacillus senegalensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:70–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3054650PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lagier JC, Gimenez G, Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Herbaspirillum massiliense sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:200–209.http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3086474PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Roux V, El Karkouri K, Lagier JC, Robert C, Raoult D. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Kurthia massiliensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:221–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3206554PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kokcha S, Ramasamy D, Lagier JC, Robert C, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Brevibacterium senegalense sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:233–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3256677PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ramasamy D, Kokcha S, Lagier JC, N’Guyen TT, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Aeromicrobium massilense sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012; 7:246–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3306717PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lagier JC, Ramasamy D, Rivet R, Raoult D, Fournier PE. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Cellulomonas massiliensis sp. nov. Stand Genomic Sci 2012;7:258–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3316719PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jousimies-Somer HP, Summanen DM, Citron EJ, Baron HM. Wexler, Finegold SM. Wadsworth-KTL anaerobic bacteriology manual, 6th ed. Star Publishing, Belmont, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. Ezaki T, Kawamura Y, Li N, Li ZY, Zhao L, Shu S. Proposal of the genera Anaerococcus gen. nov., Peptoniphilus gen. nov. and Gallicola gen. nov. for members of the genus Peptostreptococcus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001; 51:1521–1528. PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11491354&dopt=AbstractView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Song Y, Liu C, Finegold SM. Peptoniphilus gorbachii sp. nov., Peptoniphilus olsenii sp. nov. and Anaerococcus murdochii sp. nov. isolated from clinical specimens of human origin. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45:1746–1752. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00213-07PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rooney AP, Swezey JL, Pukall R, Schumann P, Spring S. Peptoniphilus methioninivorax sp. nov., a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus isolated from retail ground beef. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2011; 61:1962–1967. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.024232-0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.Google Scholar
  24. Field D, Garrity G, Gray T, Morrison N, Selengut J, Sterk P, Tatusova T, Thomson N, Allen MJ, Angiuoli SV, et al. The minimum information about a genome sequence (MIGS) specification.Google Scholar
  25. Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML. Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87:4576–4579. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gibbons NE, Murray RGE. Proposals concerning the higher taxa of Bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1978; 28:1–6.http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00207713-28-1-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Garrity GM, Holt JG. The Road Map to the Manual. In: Garrity GM, Boone DR, Castenholz RW (eds), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume 1, Springer, New York, 2001, p. 119–169.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Murray RGE. The Higher Taxa, or, a Place for Everything…? In: Holt JG (ed), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, First Edition, Volume 1, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1984, p. 31–34.Google Scholar
  29. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. List no. 132. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:469–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.022855-0
  30. Rainey FA. Class II. Clostridia class nov. In: De Vos P, Garrity G, Jones D, Krieg NR, Ludwig W, Rainey FA, Schleifer KH, Whitman WB (eds), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume 3, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2009, p. 736.Google Scholar
  31. Skerman VBD, Sneath PHA. Approved list of bacterial names. Int J Syst Bact 1980; 30:225–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00207713-30-1-225View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Prévot AR. Dictionnaire des bactéries pathogens. In: Hauduroy P, Ehringer G, Guillot G, Magrou J, Prevot AR, Rosset, Urbain A (eds). Paris, Masson, 1953, p. 1–692.Google Scholar
  33. Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet 2000; 25:25–29. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/75556PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Seng P, Drancourta M, Gouriet F, La Scola B, Fournier PF, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Ongoing revolution in bacteriology: routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49:543–551. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/600885View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Prodigal. http://prodigal.ornl.gov
  36. Benson DA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Clark K, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Sayers EW. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res 2012; 40:D48–D53. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr1202PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lowe TM, Eddy SR. t-RNAscan-SE: a program for imroved detection of transfer RNA gene in genomic sequence. Nucleic Acids Res 1997; 25:955–964. PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lagesen K, Hallin P, Rodland EA, Staerfeldt HH, Rognes T, Ussery DW. RNAmmer: consistent and rapid annotation of ribosomal RNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res 2007; 35:3100–3108. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm160PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak S. Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. J Mol Biol 2004; 340:783–795. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.05.028View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Krogh A, Larsson B, von Heijne G, Sonnhammer EL. Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov model: application to complete genomes. J Mol Biol 2001; 305:567–580. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.2000.4315View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lechner M, Findeib S, Steiner L, Marz M, Stadler PF, Prohaska SJ. Proteinortho: Detection of (Co-)orthologs in large-scale analysis. BMC Bioinformatics 2011; 12:124. PubMed http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-12-124PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2013